Villages in the Rudawy Janowickie
Rudawy Janowickie Mountains
tourism, mystery, dreams...

Wojanów

Wojanów

350-360 m above sea level

Situated at an altitude of 350-360 m above sea level, the village's eastern edge brushes the Sokole Mountains. It belongs to Mysłakowice commune, and its houses stretch along both sides of the Bóbr river.

  

History

Wojanów is one of the oldest villages near the Rudawy Landscape Park, and was mentioned in documents around the year 1281. The last name of the village's owner (mentioned in documents dated 1299), Siegfrid Zedlitz von Schildow, contributed to the choice of name for the village: Schildau. However, some believe his last name derived from the village's name. This village name, found in records from 1281, was followed by Schildow (1312), Scildau (1361 r.), Schildau (1596), Sarbiewo (1945) and Wojanów (1946)

Apart from short intervals, from the 13th to the 18th centuries Wojanów belonged to the Zedlitz family. Dietrich von Runge held possession of the village for the shortest time. From 1486 to 1530 and from 1540 to 1548 Wojanów was owned by the Schaffgotsch family of Chojnik, while it was in the hands of Johann von Schaffgotsch auf Rohrbach (a different family line) from 1548 to 1553. Mikołaj von Zedlitz auf  Neummerstadt (Płonina) und Schildau (Wojanów) was the last but one of the Zedlitz dynasty to possess Wojanów. When Mikołaj died in 1708, his property was distributed via lots among his three sons, and in this way Krzysztof Leopold von Zedlitz became the last lord of Wojanów in the family. On 3 November 1727 he sold the Wojanów estates to the Hungarian Count von Garwath, and the Zedlitz family thus ultimately parted with Wojanów. Franciszek Maksymilian von Garwath, son of the Hungarian count, inherited the property and sold it for 59,000 thalers to Lady Klara Franekberg (nee Matuschka) of Miłkowo. At the time Klara's father was owner of a significant portion of the Rudawy Janowickie (mountains?). Daniel von Buchs, already in possession of nearby Bobrów and Łomnica, purchased he village on 25 February 1755. A merchant from Jelenia Góra, he was at the time one of the major landowners in the neighbourhood, and his Wojanów estate was estimated to be worth 16,676 thalers in 1765.

Approximately 358 people lived in Wojanów in the 18th century, of whom 11 were peasants, 21 serfs, and 26 crofters. By 1786 Wojanów was already home to 50 crofters and 12 peasants, had a Catholic church and rectory, two schools (Catholic and Evangelical), two granges and a manor. The village changed hands once again in 1817, and Karl Sigismund von Rothkirch – the new owner – established his family seat there. Following his death his heirs sold Wojanów to Prussian court counsellor Karl Albrecht Ike. Karl rebuilt the palace after 1832, and in 1839 sold the property via a marine trade company into the hands of King Frederick William III of Prussia. And thus the village together with its palace became a present for the King's daughter, Princess Louise – the wife of Frederick of the Netherlands. From that time, following its conversions, the palace was part of the Prussian court's park and palace complex, which embraced the properties in Mysłakowice and Karpniki. Around the year 1870 the estate earned 1,543 thalers for its owner. Three years previously a railway line had been built through Wojanów, and a station was erected at some distance from the actual village, but affording a beautiful view over the Giant Mountains and the Rudawy Janowickie mountains. In 1890 Wojanów passed into the hands of Princess Marie of Wied, who remained the village's owner throughout the First World War. In the years between the Wars there were two inns in Wojanów, which between them had approximately 20 beds. Work camps for forced labourers functioned in the village during World War II.

After the War the palace and its outbuildings were converted into a holiday home, and were later used as a State-run collective farm. For a detailed history of the palace itself, see its description in "Palaces and manors".

The village was gradually resettled from 1945 to 2011 thanks to the vicinity of the city of Jelenia Góra. It survived mainly on agriculture, although the information available suggests the number of farms was falling. There were around 106 of them in 1970, and only 28 in 1988. There used to be an aggregate mine and a small timberworks in the village, both employing local residents. Some of the villagers worked in Jelenia Góra.

Wojanów's church is one of the most distinguished historical buildings in the vicinity, and was already mentioned in the year 1318. What we see today is a Gothic structure erected in the latter half of the 16th century. The 15th-century Gothic triptych from this church is at the National Museum in Warsaw. Original surviving features of the church are the timber coffered ceiling from 1608, a Gothic sculpture from the 15th century, the pulpit from 1600 richly ornamented in polychrome, and Baroque altars (the main altar and two side altars). There are numerous coats of arms both inside and on the outside of the church, as well as epitaphs to well-known noble families, such as the Stange, Zedlitz, Runge and Schaffgotsch. All this constitutes a valuable source of historical knowledge from the 16th and 17th centuries, regarding both the art and culture of this period.

 

Translation Jonathan Weber

Literature:
Kotlina Jeleniogórska – Bohdan W. Szarek  Wydawnictwo „Kraj" 1989rok
Słownik geografii turystycznej Sudety – Rudawy janowickie pod redakcja Marka Staffy 1998 rok wydawnictwo  I-Bis Wrocław

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