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Wojanów palace

Wojanów was established at the latest in the second half of the 13th century.
In 1281 it was the property of the Zedlitz von Schildow family, who moved into Lower Silesia and held administrative functions at the courts of the Świdnica-Jawor and Legnica-Brzeg dukes.

In 1448 there was a change of owners, the new owner being Dietrich von Runie, and then in 1486 the property was taken over by Count von Schaffgotsch of Chojnik. Then, in the years 1548-53, it was in the possession of Johann von Schaffgotsch from another line of the family. After this period the property returned to the von Zedlitz family from the line in possession of Płonina.


In 1603 Baron Nikolaus von Zedlitz erected a magnificent renaissance residence in Wojanów. During the Thirty Years’ War, in 1642, the building was severely damaged by the Swedes. Work on the manor’s reconstruction began in 1667, when the owner was Christoph von Zedlitz.
Wojanów manor and estate was purchased by Count von Garwath in 1701, and then in 1723 his son sold the manor and village to Count von Zedlitz, who in turn passed the property on to Sigmund von Frankenberg in 1752 for 59,000 thalers. Daniel von Bachus became the next owner in 1755. He was a wealthy Jelenia Góra merchant, who had various functions and positions at the empirical court. He was owner of Łomnica, and in 1777 also took possession of the nearby Wojanów-Bobrów palace.
The building was bought in 1817 by sub-lieutenant Karl Sigismund von Rothkirch, who established his family seat there. Following his death the property was purchased by the Prussian court counsellor Karl Albrecht Ike, who originated from Courland. He began converting the palace in the years 1832-1833, and also commissioned the laying out of a landscape park. In 1839 he relinquished Wojanów, and sold it through the mediation of a marine trade company to the King Frederick William III of Prussia. In turn gave it as a present to his daughter, Princess Louise (Princess Frederick of the Netherlands). Work was then carried out to transform the palace into a romantic residence, possibly supervised in the years 1839-1840 by Prussian architect Friedrich August Stuler. The palace’s final conversion is attributed to Szuler’s apprentice, Herman Wentzel, the ducal couple’s architect.
Wojanów became part of the park and palace plans of the Prussian court, which embraced Maysłakowice and Karpniki and together formed a romantic landscape area.
The estate in Wojanów passed down as inheritance to Princess Marie zu Wied of the Netherlands, who sold it in 1908 to Karol Krieg, a reserve lieutenant of the dragoon regiment from Bredow.
In the years 1927-1945 the palace belonged to the consul Kurt Effenberg and the newspaper publisher Kammer, while after the Second World War the entire estate became the property of the State Treasury. For some time now it has been in private hands, and a few years ago it suffered severe damage after being set fire to. However, it has been recently renovated and restored to its former splendour.
 


Architecture
The palace comprises three storeys on a rectangular plan, and has four cylindrical corner towers plus a spacious avant-corps housing the staircase on the front elevation axis. The building features a tall hip roof roof, while the corner turrets are crowned with funnel-shaped copulas.
The avant-corps has a flat roof that holds a viewing terrace. On the garden side, the palace has retained a spacious terrace with broad staircases to the sides. At each end of the palace stands an orangery, joined to the main building via covered passage. Straight steps lead up to a platform at the main entrance, while the front elevation itself features a double entrance portal crowned in a frieze with coats of arms. The columns placed at the entrance sides are two-thirds fluted, while a rectangular sign bearing the inscription “Erbaut 1607” is to be found above the cornice in the central section, above which in turn is a section decorated with fruit-and-floral arabesque. The orangeries are two-storey, with three-bay elevations. The fenestration of the palace’s garden-facing elevation and in the orangeries and connecting passages have partially retained their neo-Gothic woodwork, while the remaining framework dates from the seventeenth century. During the numerous alterations to the building the interiors partially lost their initial décor. Repainted classic polychrome has survived in the Ball Room, as have ornamental paintings on the ceilings of one of the upper storeys of the towers. A music gallery is accessible from the hall on the second floor, with a scene portraying Apollo carried on a bed and surrounded by his retinue placed above the door to it. Medallions bearing figurative scenes, set in decorative frames, hang above the other doors. Polychromes were also discovered during renovation work in the towers’ lower sections.
 
Literature:
1. Kapałczyński W., Napierała P. „Zamki, pałace i dwory Kotliny Jeleniogórskiej”. Fundacja Doliny Pałaców i Ogrodów Kotliny Jeleniogórskiej. Wrocław 2005.
2. "Słownik geografii turystycznej Sudetów. Rudawy Janowickie.". Red. M. Staffa. Wyd. I-BIS. Wrocław 1998
3. Ciołek M. "Romantyczna rezydencja w Wojanowie i jej twórcy: Fryderyk A. Stueler i Peter J. Lenne". http://www.dziedzictwo.pl
4. Portal Wiedzy Onet.pl. http://portalwiedzy.onet.pl


Translation Jonathan Weber

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